PANOPLY aims to evaluate interactions between natural (dust) and anthropogenic emissions in the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and climate via atmospheric and ocean forcing. These interactions might be critical in stabilizing the Earth system by feedback mechanisms that have not yet been explored. It will assess:

1) Interactions in the atmosphere by strong chemical coupling of natural (mainly dust) and anthropogenic (mainly acid precursors NOx and SOx) emissions and of aerosols and gases;

2) Interactions of atmosphere with the ocean via atmospheric deposition of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and to a lesser extent iron);

3) The impact of chemical changes to the radiation balance in the atmosphere.

PANOPLY - supported by GSRT excellence grant September 2012 - September 2015